What MICROCEPHALY means: Microcephaly - is a medical condition in which the circumference of the head is smaller than normal because the brain has not developed properly or has stopped growing. Microcephaly can be present at birth or it may develop in the first few years of life. It is most often caused by genetic abnormalities that interfere with the growth of the cerebral cortex during the early months of fetal development. It is associated with Down's syndrome, chromosomal syndromes, and neurometabolic syndromes. Babies may also be born with microcephaly if, during pregnancy, their mother abused drugs or alcohol, became infected with a cytomegalovirus, rubella (German measles), or varicella (chicken pox) virus, was exposed to certain toxic chemicals, or had untreated phenylketonuria (PKU). Babies born with microcephaly will have a smaller than normal head that will fail to grow as they progress through infancy. Depending on the severity of the accompanying syndrome, children with microcephaly may have mental retardation, delayed motor functions and speech, facial distortions, dwarfism or short stature, hyperactivity, seizures, difficulties with coordination and balance, and other brain or neurological abnormalities.
- Definition Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome:
- Dictionary Rosenthal Syndrome - is a rare neurological disorder characterized by recurring facial paralysis, swelling of the face and lips (usually the upper lip), and the development of folds and furrows in microcephaly.
- Definition Moyamoya Disease:
- Dictionary is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by blocked arteries at the base of the brain in an area called the basal ganglia. The name "moyamoya" means "puff of smoke" microcephaly.
- Definition Macrencephaly:
- Dictionary also called macrencephaly, is a condition in which an infant or child has an abnormally large, heavy, and usually malfunctioning brain. By definition, the brain weight is greater than average for the microcephaly.
- Definition Mitochondrial Myopathies:
- Dictionary Myopathies - are a group of neuromuscular diseases caused by damage to the mitochondria-small, energy-producing structures that serve as the cells' "power plants." Nerve cells in the microcephaly.